Electronic diverter of the catalyst (with full disconnection of the lambda)
Comrades, decided to tell you about a massive problem cars – lambda probe.
And so because of these oxygen sensors very often have problems. All believe that because of them there may be severe problems with fuel consumption, many people do not know what it is
So today we are going to solve 3 problems at once 1. A break in the heater circuit. 2. Low catalytic converter efficiency 3. Lack of signal on oxygen sensor
—————————————————————————————————— 1. Modern Oxygen sensor has usually 4 contacts. Two contacts of the same color are heated sensor (serves for accelerated heating of the lambda), in the original Toyota sensors, these are two black contacts! If it is after the catalyst, the computer compares the signal with the sensor before the catalyst and if the signal is almost the same or slightly lower, the car shows the error of poor catalyst efficiency. Roughly speaking, it is necessary to lower the signal at least twice in relation to the sensor before the catalyst. This is where we put a resistor in the gap of the two signal wires, and in order for the signal to be not as rough as from the first one, we put a capacitor and it will make the signal more undulating, it will be as close to similar to the real signal as possible.
If you have read the error and it indicates a break in the heater circuit, and you don’t really want to spend a lot of money on replacing the oxygen sensor, then follow my manual.
So let’s go under the car, with a multimeter and switch it to constant voltage mode at the same time. Start the car and measure the voltage on the contacts, which are the same color. If you can see the voltage from 12 to 14,5 then everything is OK, voltage is coming, then turn the car off and switch the multimeter to measuring resistance in ohms.
Should be resistance on the ohmmeter from 3 to 18 ohms. Each car has a different resistance. My Sequoia has a perfect resistance of 16 ohms on a cold lambda, when heated the resistance increases and can go up to 50 ohms, thereby reducing the current. Not the point… If you have no resistance at all, it means the circuit is really broken and you should either change the lambda or save some money.
Saving money is very simple. Take these two identical black wires (or whatever you have) and connect them to each other through a resistor. That’s it, the heater is ready. See the diagram.
And now you and I need to calculate the resistance. After experimenting, I found out that the computer measures the current to see if the lambda is working or not. I connected the cable to the computer and went into the lambda heating section. There I saw the minimum current value, which is necessary for the computer to see that the heating works, it is 0.255 amperes.
Looking at the current consumption of warmed up lambda, I saw that they eat 0.5 amps (when cold 0.9a) that is, we know that the voltage we have 13.5 volts. the minimum current should be 0.255A calculates a resistor that will consume a minimum current.
We will not go to extremes… let’s say 0.3 amps instead of 0.255 amps and let’s say not 13.5 volts but 12 volts.
12/0.3 = 40 ohm resistor. Let’s calculate the power of the resistor so that it doesn’t burn out. Let’s take the maximum voltage that our alternator can supply. 14,5 volt.
So we choose a resistor with a power reserve of 6 watts or more. You can choose 10.
That’s it… if you can’t find one, you can buy several resistors and put them in parallel. I bought 3 100ohm and 5watts resistors and got 33ohm and 15watts in total.
This is what one resistor looks like:
This way, let’s see how much current the computer should see: 13.5 volts/33.3 ohms = 0.405A, and look at what our car brains show and see that everything is ok.
Here is a diagram of what you need to do to fight only a break in the heater circuit:
2. now we start to fight only the low efficiency of the catalytic converter! We cut signal wire and solder 820 kiloohm resistor there (it is blue wire in original sensors). And close to the chip between cable and mass wire we solder non-polar 2uF capacitor. All this stuff connect to the machine and everything should work fine.
Well, now if we have no signal from the sensor, it means it is completely dead! Either replacement will help, or a cheat circuit, which works fine for several years. It has one flaw, but I’m not fixing it, because it all works anyway! Since the sensor is dead, where do we get the signal? And we’ll take it from the first sensor (which is before the catalyst), underestimate the signal as described in the second paragraph, and send this signal to the computer. To do this: 1. Cut off two contacts from the second lambda (signal), 2. Connect two wires to the first lambda to signal and ground, solder resistance to these wires and put a capacitor between them and wires and connect them to the connector of the second lambda, which lead to the computer. Here is the diagram:
And now if you do all these points together, you will get such a scheme, which completely eliminates the second lambda, and it can be safely thrown out Here is a detailed diagram:
Ask me if there is anything you don’t understand! Here is the result of this work:
Lambda probe cheat with my own hands
After the destruction or removal of the catalyst, or failure of the oxygen sensor (lambda probe), the engine is not working optimally due to improper correction of the air-fuel mixture, and on the dashboard lit indicator Check Engine. This problem can be solved by various ways of cheating the electronic control unit.
If the oxygen sensor is good – a mechanical lambda probe cheat will help, in case of its failure, you can use electronic. About how to pick up a lambda probe cheat or make it with your own hands, read below.
How does the lambda probe shifter work?
Lambda probe cheat – a device that provides the ECU with optimal values of oxygen content in exhaust gases, if the real parameters do not correspond to them. This problem is solved by correcting the readings of the current gas analyzer or its signal. The optimal variant is chosen depending on the ecological class and the car model.
The bumpers come in two varieties:
- Mechanical (screw-in sleeve or mini-catalyst) . The principle of operation is based on creating a barrier between the oxygen sensor and the gases in the exhaust system.
- Electronic (resistor with a capacitor or a separate controller) . The emulator is installed in the gap of the wiring or instead of the regular sensor. The principle of operation of the lambda probe cheat of electronic type is to simulate the correct indicators of the sensor.
The bush-twist (pacifier) allows you to successfully fool the ECU of older cars, corresponding to the environmental class no lower than Euro-3, and the mini-catalyst is suitable even for modern cars with standards up to Euro-6. In both cases you need a functioning FC, which is screwed into the cheat body. Thus the working part of the sensor is surrounded by relatively clean gases and transmits normal data to the ECU.
The lambda probe cheat – mini-catalyst (you can see the catalyst grid)
Factory configurable microcontroller-based lambda probe emulator cheat
For the electronic bogie based on the resistor and capacitor, it’s not the environmental class that matters, but the ECU’s operating principle. For example, on Audi A4 this variant does not work – the computer will display an error due to incorrect data. In addition, it is not always possible to choose the optimal parameters of electronic components. Electronic cheat with a microcontroller independently simulates the work of the oxygen sensor, even in its absence and complete inoperability.
There are two types of independent electronic bogie with a microcontroller:
- Independent, generating a signal of normal lambda operation;
- correcting readings according to the data of the first sensor.
The first type of emulators is usually used on cars with HBO of older generations (up to 3), where when driving on gas it is important to create the appearance of normal operation of the oxygen sensor. The latter are installed after the catalyst is cut out instead of the second lambda and simulate its normal operation according to the readings of the first sensor.
How to make a lambda probe bump itself
Lambda probe cheat with your own hands: video of making a spacer
If you have the necessary tools, a lambda probe cheat can be made yourself. The easiest thing to make is a mechanical sleeve and an electronic mimic with a resistor and a capacitor.
To make the pacifier need:
- A metal lathe;
- A small blank of bronze or stainless steel (length about 60-100 mm, thickness about 30-50 mm);
- Chisels (cutoff, boring and thread-cutting) or chisels, tap and die.
To make an electronic lambda probe cheat sheet you will need:
Making an electronic oxygen sensor cheat sheet with your own hands: video
- capacitors 1-5 μF;
- 100 kOhm – 1 mOhm resistors and/or trimmers with this range;
- soldering iron;
- solder and flux;
- case box;
- sealant or epoxy.
It takes no more than an hour to turn a screwdriver and make a simple electronic bump, if you have the right skills (turning/soldering electronics). With the other two options will be more difficult.
To find the necessary components to make a mini-catalyst at home will be difficult, and to create an independent signal simulator on a microcontroller, in addition to the microchip, you need basic electronics and programming skills.
The following will tell you how to make a lambda probe cheat after removing the catalyst, so there are no Check Engine errors with codes P0130-P0179 (related to lambda), P0420-P0424 and P0430-P0434 (catalyst errors).
Cheat the first (or the only one on the car to Euro-3) lambda probe makes sense only when driving on the injector with installed HBO 1-3 generation (without feedback)! To drive on gasoline, distort the readings of upper oxygen sensor is highly undesirable, because they are used to correct the air-fuel mixture!
The scheme of electronic bumpers
The electronic lambda probe cheat works on the principle of distorting the real sensor signal to the one needed for the normal operation of the engine. There are two versions of the system:
- With a resistor and a capacitor . A simple circuit that allows you to change the shape of the electrical signal from the AC by soldering in additional elements. The resistor serves to limit the voltage and current, and the capacitor serves to eliminate voltage ripples on the load. This type of a cheat is usually used after the catalyst has been cut out to simulate its presence.
- With a microcontroller . Electronic lambda probe cheat with its own processor is able to generate a signal that simulates the readings of a functioning oxygen sensor. There are dependent emulators tied to the first (upper) EC, and independent ones that generate the signal without external indications.
The first type is used to trick the ECU after removal or failure of the catalyst. The second can also serve for this purpose, but more often used as a first lambda probe cheat for normal driving with old generations of HBO.
Scheme of the electronic lambda sensor cheat
The electronic lambda probe cheat, the scheme of which is presented above, consists of only two elements and is simple to make, but may require the selection of radio components on the rating.
Integration of the resistor and capacitor in the wiring
Electronic lambda probe cheat on resistor with capacitor
Resistor and capacitor can be integrated in cars with two oxygen sensors of Euro-3 environmental class or higher. Electronic lambda probe cheat with your own hands is made as follows:
- the resistor is soldered into the gap of the signal wire;
- non-polar capacitor is connected between the signal wire and mass, after the resistor, from the side of the sensor connector.
The principle of the simulator is simple: the resistance in the signal circuit reduces the current coming from the second oxygen sensor, and the capacitor smoothes its pulsations. As a result, the injector ECU “thinks” that the catalytic converter is functioning, and the oxygen content in the exhaust is within normal limits.
Scheme of the lambda probe cheat with your own hands
To obtain a correct signal (pulse shape), you need to pick up such parts:
- non-polar film capacitor from 1 to 5 μF;
- a resistor of 100 kOhm to 1 Mohm with a power dissipation of 0.25 to 1 W.
To simplify, you can first use a trim resistor with such a range to find a suitable resistance value. The most common circuit is with a 1 megohm resistor and a 1 μF capacitor.
The bumpers should be connected to the sensor wiring harness, preferably away from the hot elements of the exhaust. To protect the radio components from moisture and dirt, it is better to put them in a casing and fill it with sealant or epoxy resin.
The emulator can be made in the form of adapter-pad between the lambda probe plugs “mom” and “dad”, using the appropriate connectors.
Microprocessor board in the gap of lambda probe wiring
Electronic lambda probe cheat on a microcontroller is needed in two cases:
- Swapping the readings of the first (or only) oxygen sensor when driving on 2nd or 3rd generation HBO;
- swapping readings of the second lambda on cars with Euro-3 and higher without a catalyst.
You can build an emulator of oxygen sensor on microcontroller with your own hands for HBO using the following set of radio components:
- NE555 integrated circuit (the main controller that generates pulses);
- capacitors 0.1; 22 and 47 μF;
- 1; 2.2; 10, 22, and 100 kOhm resistors;
Electronic lambda probe cheat with your own hands – scheme for HBO
The above-described cheat is connected through a relay in the cut of the signal wire between the oxygen sensor and the ECU. When running on gas, the relay includes an emulator in the circuit, which generates spurious oxygen sensor signals. When switching to gasoline, the oxygen sensor is connected directly to the ECU with the help of the relay. In this way both normal operation of the lambda on gasoline and absence of errors on gas are achieved at the same time.
If you buy a ready-made emulator of the first lambda probe for HBO – it will cost about 500-1000 rubles.
Make an electronic lambda probe cheat to simulate the readings of the second sensor can also be their own hands. To do this you will need:
- Resistors for 10 and 100 ohms (2 pcs.), 1; 6.8; 39 and 300 kOhm;
- Capacitors of 4.7 and 10 pF;
- LM358 amplifiers (2 pcs.);
- Schottky diode 10BQ040.
The wiring diagram of this emulator is shown in the picture. The principle of the bumpers is to change the output readings of the first oxygen sensor and transmit them to the ECU under the guise of the second sensor readings.
Diagram of a simple electronic emulator of the second lambda probe
The above scheme is universal and allows you to simulate the work of both titanium and zirconium oxygen sensors.
A ready-made second lambda probe emulator based on a microcontroller will cost from 1 to 5 thousand rubles, depending on complexity.
Drawing of a mechanical bump
Drawing of the mechanical lambda probe cheat for many zirconium sensors to Euro-3: to enlarge click
A mechanical lambda probe cheat can be used on cars with the catalytic converter removed and a working second (lower) oxygen sensor. Screwdriver with a hole normally works on cars of Euro-3 class and below, which sensors are not very sensitive. The mechanical lambda probe cheat, the drawing of which is shown in the illustration, is of this type.
For Euro-4 and higher, you need a cheat sheet with a miniature catalytic converter inside. It will clean the gases directly in the sensor area, thereby simulating the work of the missing regular catalytic converter. Such a lambda probe bump is more difficult to make with your own hands, as it requires a catalyzing substance.
A sleeve with a mini-catalyst
To make a mechanical lambda probe bump with your own hands will require a lathe and the ability to work with it, as well as:
- a blank of bronze or heat-resistant stainless steel about 100 mm in length and 30-50 mm in diameter;
- cutters (cutoff, boring and thread-cutting);
- tap and M18x1,5 (instead of threading cutters);
- catalytic element.
The main difficulty is finding the catalytic element. The easiest way is to cut it out of the filler of the broken catalyst by selecting a relatively whole section of it.
Ceramic powder, which is advised to use on some Internet resources, for these purposes is not suitable!
Lambda probe cheat with mini-catalyst with your own hands: drawing of the spacer: to enlarge click
Oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons in the catalyst provides not the ceramic itself, but the sputtering of precious metals (platinum, rhodium, palladium) applied to it. Therefore, the usual ceramic filler is useless – it serves only as an insulator, reducing the flow of gases to the sensor, which does not give the necessary effect.
In a mechanical second lambda probe cheat with your own hands, you can use the remains of an already collapsed catalytic converter, so do not rush to surrender it to the buyers.
The factory mechanical lambda probe cheat with a mini-catalyst costs 1-2 thousand rubles.
If the space, in which the oxygen sensor on the exhaust line is located, is severely limited, the OEM DC with a spacer may not fit! In this case, you need to make or buy an L-shaped angled bumper.
Screw with a hole of small diameter
The lambda probe bumpwire is made in the same way as the mini catalytic converter. For this you need:
- A bronze or heat-resistant stainless steel blank;
- A set of cutters and/or a tap and a M18x1,5 piece.
Mechanical lambda probe cheat with your own hands: a screwdriver drawing
The only difference in design is that there is no catalytic filler inside, and the hole in the lower part has a smaller (2-3 mm) diameter. It limits the flow of exhaust gases to the oxygen sensor, thereby providing the necessary readings.
How long does the lambda probe bump last?
Mechanical oxygen sensor cheaters without a catalytic filler are the simplest and most durable, but not very effective. They work without problems on Euro-3 engines equipped with low-sensitivity lambda probes. How long a lambda probe cheater of this type lasts depends only on the quality of the material. When using bronze or heat-resistant steel it can be eternal, but sometimes (once in 20-30 thousand km) requires cleaning the hole from carbon deposits.
Newer cars need a bumper with a mini-catalyst inside, which also has a limited resource. After exhausting of catalytic filler (occurs for 50100 thousand km) it ceases to cope with its tasks and turns into a full analogue of a simple screwdriver. In such case it is necessary to change the simulator or fill it up with fresh catalytic material.
The electronic dampers are theoretically not prone to breakage and wear, because they do not experience mechanical stress. But the resource of radio components (resistors, capacitors) is limited, with time they degrade and lose their properties. The emulator can fail prematurely if dust or moisture gets on the components due to leakage.
|Type of LZ bumpers||Compatibility with cars||How to service the LZ bumpers||How long does an LD bumper last (how often should it be replaced)|
|Mechanical (screw-in)||1999-2004 (EU production), up to 2013 (Russian production), cars up to Euro-3 inclusive.||Periodically (every 20-30 thousand km) you may need to clean the hole and the sensor cavity from fouling.||Theoretically forever (just a mechanical adapter, there is nothing to break).|
|Mechanical (mini catalytic converter)||From 2005 (EU) or 2013 (Russia) up to now, Euro-3 class and above.||After working out the resource requires replacement or replacement of the catalytic filler.||50-100 thousand km, depending on quality of the filler.|
|Electronic (board)||Independent emulators before 2005 (EU) or before 2013 (Russia) production year, environmental class Euro-2 or Euro-3 (where it makes sense to install HBO 2 and 3 generations). Emulators, which use indications of the first detector to bypass the second lambda probe – from 2005 (EU) or 2008 (Russia) up to now, Euro-3 and above, but exceptions are possible, correct selection of ratings is important.||Maintenance free if located in dry and clean place and isolated from humidity and dirt.||Depends on the quality of the electronic components. Should be sufficient for the entire life of the car, but you may need to re-solder the electrolytes and/or resistors if poor quality components are used.|
|Electronic (resistor and capacitor)||Cars from 2005 (EU) or 2008 (Russia) year, Euro 3 and higher.||Periodically check for continuity of elements.||Depends on the quality of radio components and the correct selection of ratings. If the components are selected correctly, don’t overheat and don’t get wet, it can be enough for the whole life of a car.|
Which lambda cheat is better
It is impossible to unequivocally answer the question “Which lambda cheat sheet is better?”. Each device has its own pros and cons, different compatibility with certain models. Which lambda probe bump is better to put – depends on the purpose of this manipulation and specific conditions:
- mechanical bumpers act only in conjunction with a working oxygen sensor;
- only electronic bumpers with microcontroller (pulse generator) are suitable for simulating normal operation of the oxygen sensor on old HBO;
- On old cars not higher than Euro-3 it is better to install bumpers – cheaper and more reliable;
- on more modern cars (Euro-4 and above) it is better to use mini-catalysts;
- variant with a resistor and a capacitor is cheaper, but less reliable for new cars;
- Emulator of the second lambda probe on a microcontroller, working from the first – the best variant for the cars with outdated or removed second oxygen sensor.
Generally speaking, it is the mini-catalyst that is the best option for a functioning AC, because it mimics the work of the regular neutralizer with high reliability. Microcontroller is more complex and expensive option, that is why it is appropriate only when there is no OEM sensor at all or it is necessary to cheat it for driving on gas.
Car mechanic with 20 years of experience in repairing and servicing cars of different brands. Main focus: diagnostics and mechanics.