Creating forms for paving tiles: types, peculiarities of manufacturing
Neighborhood area will seem incomplete, if not to ennoble the area with paving stones. Save the budget will help self-made forms for paving tiles. And garden paths, laid out according to your own sketch, will delight the eye.
Varieties of forms
Varieties of forms forms for paving tiles various forms
The variety of ready-made paving elements allows you to choose any design for the garden plot. And templates for making tiles are divided into different categories according to the type of material, methods of laying and types of products. If we talk about shapes, there are such types of tiles:
- square and rectangular;
Each of them is notable for its appearance. For example, rectangular tiles can be an ordinary paving stone, which is laid out “herringbone” or linear. Polygon is a classic hexagon (laid out in the pattern of “honeycomb” or “mosaic”), and the product of any kind can represent fragments of natural stone. As for universal tiles, this category refers to paving elements that can be stacked in any pattern, combining shades. And modular fragments add up to a single picture. No less popular are the options with which to create 3d-images.
If we consider the manufacture of products for pavement by the method of production, we distinguish 2 types:
The first method is used exclusively in factory conditions and can not be used for domestic production. And that’s because the creation of pressed tiles requires special equipment. The second method is simpler and is considered relatively easy, because forms for pouring and mortar are used. Templates can be purchased in specialized stores or make their own hands. Homemade stencils are filled with concrete mortar, where the elements of the future road surface are created. With the help of a vibrating machine, excess air bubbles are expelled from the mixture. As for the material from which the templates are made, it can be:
Making templates for future tiles with your own hands has advantages, because it allows you to:
- create a unique design of paths;
- Get the fragments of paving on your own artistic taste;
- to save the budget.
Unlike shop-made self-made stencils do not have a standard configuration. In addition, often in the design of walkways, the tiles have to be cut and laid in such a way as to fit the paving to a single look. If the forms for tiles are supposed to make their own, even at the stage of designing the landscape design, it is necessary to take into account the features of the topography, decide on the type of paths.
The process of creating forms
If we consider each type of material separately, it is necessary to take into account some nuances.
Subtleties of making a template from plastic
Plastic is one of the low-cost materials for creating a framework for molding. Masters use plastic containers and bottles, pots and trays for production (they are ready-made stencils). However, for full-fledged casting, old containers will not be enough, and, in addition, templates of this type are short-lived and quickly fall into disrepair. Another method is considered more acceptable. You can make a mold for tiles after melting the old plastic and then pouring the mass into the prepared formwork. After curing, the plastic template can be used under the concrete mortar. Among the advantages of plastic stencils are the following:
- transmission accuracy of geometry and patterns;
- good resistance to the pouring of mortar.
Since the plastic form holds well and does not crack for a long time, it is convenient to use it to create tiles of non-standard design. The sequence of actions in home conditions is as follows:
- A framework is made of bars. The bars should be fastened with self-tapping screws or screws. It is necessary to remember that the size of the template corresponds to the internal size of the frame, and it can be taken any size and any kind. The plastic stencil will completely repeat the internal contours of the framework.
- Melted plastic mass is poured into the horizontally mounted frame. Please note that the time for complete solidification is 1 hour.
- The finished product is removed and, if necessary, grinded with emery paper.
The evenness of the lines in the creation of the frame is checked with a construction level. To accelerate the work, you can build several stencils for pouring.
Wooden forms characteristics of wooden molds
To make a frame for pouring from wood yourself, you will have to remember the mechanism of the device of the formwork structure:
- Moisture-resistant plywood sheets or bars are cut into the required number of pieces.
- The pieces are fastened together with nails, screws or corners. It is desirable to remember that the fastening points should be collapsible, so that when the time of hardening of the concrete mortar, the framework can be easily removed.
- The finished product is placed on the surface, previously covered with a film. The mortar is poured into the template – up to the middle of the mold, then the reinforcing mesh is placed and the rest of the concrete mixture is added.
The curing time of the ready tile is 2 days. The peculiarities of manufacturing include the mandatory reinforcement of the mortar and the need to grind the inner sides of the frame, so that you can then easily take out the finished element of paving. The disadvantages of wooden templates for tiles include the mandatory impregnation of the frame with moisture-resistant composition. Otherwise, the material will not withstand a large number of pours. And also wooden templates can have only the simplest configuration (the most complex shapes are hexagons), and therefore their use for the manufacture of tiles of complex design is impossible.
Templates made of gypsum
The principle of creating plaster stencils is not complicated. The most important thing in it is to have a sample. This method is considered one of the low-cost and simple, but at the same time and impractical – plaster casts are quite fragile. Sequence of making:
- A wooden frame is constructed from bars. The inner dimensions of the frame should be 10 cm larger than the size of the specimen.
- The sample is placed in the frame, and the plaster mixture is poured into it.
- After it hardens, the model is squeezed out of the plaster.
Instead of an impression, you can pour a pre-waxed sample (such as shagreen) with gypsum mortar and then gently remove the model.
When mixing the gypsum mortar, it is recommended to add a plasticizer to it. This will make the pattern more durable, it will not shrink during setting and will not crack after it has dried completely.
The finished stencil is impregnated with olive oil several times, so that the template does not get soaked when the concrete is poured.
Creating silicone forms for paving tiles
Using silicone templates is a great way to make tiles of any design. Silicone can convey the finest details of the surface, which is important for those who plan to create a tile with a complex configuration. The step-by-step process is as follows:
- Sculpting plasticine is placed in a container for pouring silicone, evenly distributed in a thick layer.
- A matrix lubricated with oil is placed on the plasticine so that the silicone does not stick to the matrix surface.
- The prepared silicone mixture is poured into a container. It is left to cure for 24 hours.
- After the matrix template is removed from the container, the defects are removed with scissors.
The advantage of a silicone template is that it does not break, is not afraid of moisture and is easy to remove the molded object. Also, silicone solidifies the faster the higher the air temperature outside. In addition, silicone elements will be a good solution for those who plan to pave a large area around the house.
The principle of creating such stencils is similar to the production of silicone forms. Especially the product is suitable for those construction sites, where you need tiles in large quantities. When working with polyurethane it is recommended to use personal protective equipment and to ventilate the room well. After the polyurethane hardens, the templates are taken out and sanded additionally. The disadvantage of using such elements is the probability of a slight warping due to the pressure of concrete on the walls of the stencil, as the polyurethane element is elastic.
Popular materials for making forms
These include those from which the templates are obtained most quickly. These are wood, plaster, metal, plastic, polyurethane and silicone. Such building materials are considered the most popular today, as they can be made on their own and from improvised means.
Which material is better?
If we consider the templates in terms of durability, it is considered that it is better to make products from silicone and polyurethane. They are not afraid of moisture, can endure a large number of casting cycles (unlike wood and plaster). However, homemade molds made of polymers are more difficult to create than products made of wood, and they are not as durable as metal ones.
Table: Comparison of materials for self-made molds
For a comparative analysis, you can consider the most popular construction materials for making:
|Template material||Weight per pattern, kg||Time of production and hardening, hr|
|Wood||1-1,5 linear meters||1|
|Gypsum||2||1 hour – for production, up to 20 hours – for hardening|
|Plastic||1||1 hour of work, 1 day – hardening|
|Silicone||1||1 hour for work and hardening|
Preparation for pouring
Finished products must be treated before use. Wooden frames should be sanded on the inside and coated with a layer of moisture-repellent composition. It is desirable to sand the plaster products with sandpaper. This is done to make the cast fragments of the pavement look even, without chips and scratches. And it is recommended to grease the stencils made of polymeric materials with an impregnation agent, for giving the gypsum elements greater elasticity.
Is it necessary to lubricate the finished forms before pouring?
During the creation process, improperly removed molded elements can be destroyed. In order to minimize this destruction, it is necessary to treat the finished stencils before use. Special coating agents (such as olive oil or waste oil) can be used as a lubricant. Wax mastic can be used, then the removal of the ready cast element will be fast and uncomplicated. Templates made of plastic, silicone and polyurethane do not need any lubricants.
Form for paving tiles with their own hands: photo, instructions
In addition to popular materials, you can also use scraps of metal pipe. Templates made of metal are durable, wear-resistant, they are resistant to moisture, can withstand a large number of cycles. Manufacturing process:
- Cut the old pipe into rings of equal width.
- Place it on a flat surface. To create a relief pattern under the pipe, you can put an ordinary rubber mat.
- Pour the concrete mortar.
Before using, it is desirable to sand the inside walls of the pipe, so that the cast tile element at the output has an even surface. The walls are also treated with olive oil or grease for easy removal of the finished element. For the convenience of carrying the concrete-filled templates, handles can be welded to the walls.
How to make a mold yourself?
Step-by-step process of making a rectangular template from wood:
- Take a board, measure and cut 2 pieces (30 mm longer than the rib of the tile).
- Measure 2 more pieces equal to the size of the edge of the tile.
- Attach all 4 pieces with nails or screws. Some builders recommend using metal corners as fasteners for greater reliability.
- Make a purlin of reinforcing bars, laying it inside the wooden frame. The sheathing must “sink” into the concrete mortar.
- Lay the foil on a flat surface, install the frame and pour the mortar into the middle of it. Then lay the reinforcement and pour the mortar up to the top.
Composite reinforcement can be used instead of metal. For the pouring to have an even surface, the inner walls of the framework should be grinded. To create embossed patterns, you can lay a sample mold on the film, pre-lubricating it with grease. This is necessary so that the mold can be easily removed.
If you want to make a frame-multi-corner, you need to measure the required number of pieces of equal length and fasten them together. After the concrete pour hardens, the framework can be disassembled by unscrewing the screws.
The most difficult thing in the process of making wooden forms is the device of articulating parts. It is important to monitor the evenness of the adherence of the sides to each other.
Technology of manufacturing
The entire process of making templates from any material can be outlined as follows:
- Designing. At this stage, a sketch of the future stencil is sketched.
- Details and the type of decoration are specified. A drawing is created with a binding of sizes.
- A choice of material. Raw materials for making the template can be from improvised means.
- Preparation of details. Parts of the stencil are made.
- Assembly. All parts are assembled into a frame with the clarification of joints according to the sketch.
- Processing. The finished product is smeared with a special compound to make it easier to take out the cast element later.
What tools may be needed?
A standard set for making molds can include:
- hacksaw for wood, metal;
- Fasteners (screws, screws, self-tapping screws, nails);
- welding machine;
- paint brushes.
In addition, comes handy grinder, with its help will be grind the inner walls of the template. If there is no grinder will have to use sandpaper. Facilitate the process will help concrete mixer and equipment for vibroflow, which will be used to mix the solution for casting and to kick out excess air.
Safety precautions at work
As in any production, to make a form for paving tiles, it is necessary to observe safety precautions:
- Before working with special equipment, it is necessary to read the instructions for its use.
- When working with welding equipment it is necessary to observe the rules of fire and electrical safety. Have fire extinguishing means on site. Work with welding must be carried out in working clothes, using a protective mask.
- Work with chemically aggressive substances shall be carried out out in the open air or in a ventilated room. When diluting chemical solutions it is necessary to protect the respiratory organs with a respirator, to work in special glasses.
Fabrication and operation tips
To make the template elements last longer, you need to adhere to the following recommendations:
- If a matrix form is planned, it is desirable to maintain a slight slope of the walls to the outer side.
- The thickness of the walls of plastic products should be cast such that it can withstand the pressure of the mortar when carrying.
- Wood and plaster templates should preferably be coated with a paint composition. It is recommended to periodically treat the wooden strips with paint and varnish to prevent the destruction and deformation of the stencils.
- Instead of cast stencils you can use scraps of plastic pipes, old plastic containers.
- Before use, it is recommended to lubricate the pattern pieces with used machine oil or special compositions to make it easier to remove the cast tile elements.
- When creating stencils, it is desirable to make and corner elements, so as not to cut the finished fragments.
- To make it easier to transfer the casting from the vibrating table to the platform for curing products, stencils can be made with handles.
If you follow the above recommendations, the templates for paving tiles, made with their own hands, will last longer.
How to make forms for paving tiles with your own hands – step by step instruction
Making paving tiles – the process is relatively uncomplicated, in small quantities it can be produced independently.
For the needs of a summer cottage, a private home, etc. requires a fairly small amount of tiles, which in some cases is easier to make yourself than to deliver from afar, since the cost of purchasing and delivery can several times exceed the cost of production.
The main problem that arises when planning work – where to get a mold for paving tiles. Having searched through the stores, one comes to the idea that the molds should also be made on their own. Let’s consider some options available to the home craftsman.
What is needed
As materials suitable for making a matrix, you can use:
- Wooden bars.
- Gypsum, etc.
One way or another, the work will require certain tools and devices. The final choice usually determines the most accessible and familiar in the processing of the material.
What tools may be required
The use of tools depends largely on the choice of material. Definitely a standard set will come in handy – a hacksaw, screws and a screwdriver (screwdriver, drill), a hammer. To work with metal can be useful welding machine, drills for metal, riveting material. Practice shows that during these works unnecessary tools do not happen, can be taken atypical solutions, which will need a variety of devices.
Some forms for the pouring of paving tiles must be protected from moisture with olive oil, paint or varnish. For this you will need a brush, paint and varnish with solvent. The choice of protective coating is not so basic, the main thing is to provide a cut-off of water.
For grinding the finished product requires sandpaper, grinder or drill with a sanding nozzle.
This moment is important because the surface of the tiles should be smooth. In addition, to remove the finished tile from the rough formwork is difficult, you can break it.
Learn how to clean a paving tile from cement on the pages of our website! We will tell you what tools and materials you will need for this.
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We’ve also prepared a step-by-step guide for you on how to properly make paths out of paving tiles! Look for details in the following material.
Making instructions with a photo
Let’s consider how to make different homemade forms for paving tiles with your own hands. Much depends on the material of manufacture.
Watch a useful video on how to make a scheme of the product:
The most affordable way . To work, you will need wooden bars, connected to each other so that you get a closed figure, the interior of which is the outline of the future tiles. It should be remembered that the outlines of the tiles must match each other, so that they can be tightly lined up with each other.
It is not recommended to use any complex outlines, simple geometric shapes – square, rectangle, hexagon. Attention should be paid to the accuracy of internal dimensions, for our task is important only they.
Connecting the bars with each other by using screws. If the figures are square or rectangular – be sure to measure the inner diagonal lengths, they must be the same. It is necessary to control the correctness of angles for hexagons, for which you can use a protractor or make an accurate template.
Assembling the matrices is quite simple. Cut to length blanks are assembled to the specified dimensions and outlines using screws. The inner surface is carefully cleaned and sanded with sandpaper. Then it is necessary to cover the form with several layers of olive oil, varnish, etc.
Some sources argue that you can do without it, just wet the form before use with a soapy solution.
However, this statement is debatable, the finished mold may need later for partial repairs, so protection from water is necessary.
Plastic or polyurethane
Manufacturing takes place in two stages . First, it is necessary to make a wooden mold for pouring plastic. In this case, it should be taken into account that the inner size should be 2 cm more than required, this is an allowance for the thickness of the walls.
Then you need to assemble another frame, exactly repeating the outlines of the future plastic mold.
It is placed inside the first one so that the gap is even. This is where the melted plastic is poured. If you use polyurethane, a two-component mixture which has a harmful effect on the body, it is necessary to ensure good ventilation of the room and use an ISP.
To make products with a geometric pattern or a more complex configuration requires an exact model of the future tile, which is placed in a box and poured polyurethane.
After curing, the product is taken out of the matrix, and the uneven areas are treated with sandpaper. Thus a form that can withstand repeated use is obtained, but the process itself requires experience and skills. If they are not available, this method is better abandoned.
The advantages are an even, smooth surface, little reaction to the effects of water, strength.
Disadvantages – to make such a mold is difficult, it makes sense to do it only when counting on a large volume and long service life.
The product is not flexible, so it is better to make it collapsible to avoid breakage of finished tiles when beating out.
There may be many variants of manufacturing, it all depends on the capabilities of the master and his imagination. Most often simply welded square, rectangular or hexagonal frame, in which the concrete is poured.
If you combine such forms with a relief bottom, imitating the texture of a stone, wood or geometric pattern, the finished tile looks very solid.
They have the same advantages as polyurethane ones – flexibility, accuracy of repetition of the original pattern and the possibility of multiple use. At the same time silicone is much more expensive than other materials. In addition, such forms are more flexible, they do not hold as firmly, which can cause small distortions of castings.
The manufacturing process resembles working with polyurethane – a master model will be required. It is placed in a box, the silicone is mixed with the catalyst and hardener and poured into the box so as to cover the model with a layer of not less than 1 cm.
After crystallization of the composition, the silicone mold is removed from the model. The operation takes about 24 hours.
In this video you will learn how to make forms for the production of paving tiles with your own hands:
Making plaster forms – a simple and affordable way, the only condition is the presence of a sample or a master model.
The principle of production is simple – a wooden box is made, the size of 10 cm larger than the model, in it is poured plaster and extruded impression of the model. Alternatively, the model is poured with a layer of plaster and carefully removed. The surface of the model should be covered with varnish or wax mastic to prevent the plaster from sticking to it.
It is recommended not to use plaster in its pure form, but to make a molding mixture, which is much stronger and does not give cracks and shrinkage during hardening. Ready-made impression should be soaked in olive oil or varnish a few times to prevent soaking during work.
The advantages of this method are the cheapness of the material and the ease of production. You can make several molds at once, which will allow you to cast several tiles at once, reducing the production time.
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What material is better
In terms of surface quality, flexibility and durability, the leaders are polyurethane, silicone, plastic . They do not react to moisture, easy to clean, tolerate a large number of cycles of work without too many problems. At the same time, they are much more difficult to manufacture than wooden products, less durable than metal, and much more expensive than plaster.
It is necessary to take into account the training of the craftsman . For one it is preferable to work with wood, for another – with metal, etc. The final result is largely determined by the level of professionalism of the manufacturer.
Most often the decisive value is not so much the material, as the skills and abilities of the worker.
Any product bears the imprint of the personality of the master, so it is difficult to unequivocally call the best material.
Preparation for pouring
And what to grease the forms for paving tiles? First of all, it is necessary to impregnate or cover the form with olive oil, varnish or similar materials, excluding its contact with water. This does not apply to plastic, silicone or polyurethane products. Before pouring, the form should be lubricated with wax mastic to make it easier to remove the cured tiles. The layer should be even and thin, without runs or drops.
It is recommended to equip the form with handles or grips to facilitate knocking out the tiles, because the weight together with the concrete is quite large, it should be possible to hold the form and eliminate the risk of falling.
Possible errors, tips
When making a matrix, if possible, you should maintain a slight outward slope of the walls.
Important: Inward sloping of the walls, which would wedge the casting, is not permitted!
Too thin walls, especially when working with plastics, will lead to rapid failure of the mold. The thickness should be such as to allow lifting and carrying the container with the poured concrete without destroying it.
Wooden and gypsum should be periodically coated with paint, renewing the existing layer. This will protect the surface from moisture and warping.
Ready-made plastic containers, scraps of plastic pipes or other profile parts can be used as forms for tiles.
Safety precautions at work
- All operations with chemically active elements must be performed in a well-ventilated room or outdoors. Respiratory organs, eyes must be protected with a respirator and protective goggles. This is especially important when working with polyurethane.
- Welding works must be performed in accordance with the rules, in a safe room with availability of fire-fighting means, as well as with the rules of electrical safety.
- In any case, before you start, you should familiarize yourself with the safety rules for this area and ensure that they are followed.
Creating matrices for paving tiles with their own hands – a wide field of activity for creative people, giving the opportunity to show their imagination, originality of thought and skill. In this case, the quality of manufacturing can be no worse than the factory samples. In addition, saving money and time on the search for the right tiles is often crucial.