The installation of speed limiting devices increases the safety of the delivery of goods and people.
Working principle of the device
By design, the device is a control unit, it regulates the amount of fuel supplied and so affects the speed of travel.
The limiter works by means of:
- electromagnetic valve;
- accelerometer pedal.
The principle of operation of the device:
1. The speedometer transmits data to the control system.
2. When a certain limit is reached, the unit, through a valve, cuts off the fuel supply to the motor.
3. When the speed drops to the desired speed, the system resumes normal operation.
If the fuel valve is not used – the unit sends a signal to idle until the speed is normalized.
The critical speed is set in the control unit.
Types of limiters
There are four types of CBs available:
The latter are more popular in Russia – they are easier and simpler to install, they are more affordable.
Usage spheres of CBs
It is established by law and ADR rules that restraints are obligatory to be installed on vehicles for the delivery of dangerous goods, passengers, and in particular, children.
Any vehicle weighing more than 3.5 tons for the transport of dangerous goods is required to have such a device. This includes all vehicles and tractors, regardless of where they run – within the city, suburban or intercity travel. Just do not make a difference on the type and method of transportation in any container. EOS must be set and there are no exceptions, even if the manufacturer has implemented a speed limitation in the car or the maximum speed below the specified in ADR. The EOS is set to 90 km/h.
A limiter is also needed on buses and passenger vehicles. For them, the permitted speed is 90 km/h.
Buses that carry children under 16 years old are also equipped with an EOS. The limit for them is 60 km/h. There is an exception if the speed initially does not exceed the limit.
Regulatory framework and administrative responsibility
The limit is set on the basis of the international agreement on the transport of dangerous goods by road, or in short, ADR. This agreement was developed on the recommendation of the United Nations and lists all markings of dangerous goods and chemical compounds. The purpose of ADR is to standardize the transportation of goods and their markings, and thus improve the safety of such transportation. The Russian Federation has signed this agreement, which means that it is obligatory to comply with these rules.
The next basis is GOST 41.89-99. It has a definition of what is the USO, gives standards and definitions for installation. This document officially enshrines the introduction of limiters in Russia.
The final consolidation and introduction of devices is approved by the technical regulations. It is there that states that the limiters are installed on vehicles weighing more than 3.5 tons for dangerous goods and on buses for children.
Failure to comply with the rules and regulations is punishable under the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation. The sanctions for violations are quite severe – a large fine on the company, refusal to confirm the technical inspection and prohibition to operate the vehicle.
There are no special penalties for drivers for speeding – they are punished in accordance with the current legislation on general grounds.
How to install a speed limiting device
The OOS can be installed at the assembly of the car or in a special certified service center. The limiter must be sealed to prevent tampering and intentional disabling. Once the installation is done, a sticker is applied to the vehicle announcing the presence of the device.
Such work can be combined with the introduction of GLONASS-monitoring, which will increase the control and safety of cargo transportation.
Why do you need a speed limiting device in cars and how it works?
Nobody will argue with the fact that very often traffic accidents and different accidents are caused by the drivers exceeding their speed limits. But it is one thing when we are talking about exceeding a few kilometers per hour, and quite another thing when a car is literally rushing at sites where it is not allowed to go even faster than 40 kilometers per hour.
Many modern cars, which have an impressive power and a high top speed, are artificially limited in their maximum speed by means of so-called electronic collars. But here we are usually talking about the limiter at 250 kilometers per hour.
The situation is completely different with trucks, which are designed for the transportation of various dangerous goods and goods. It is for them and create devices for speed limiting. This equipment must comply with certain requirements, norms and standards, which allows the operation of such machines and in international freight transport.
What is it
The name already makes it obvious that the main task of speed limiters on cars is to limit the maximum permissible speed at which a vehicle can travel on public roads.
Speed limiting devices (SLDs) can be characterized as control equipment which regulates the fuel supply to the internal combustion engine installed on the vehicle. This is what allows the device to limit the speed at which the truck moves.
Regulation can be done in one of 2 ways:
- By means of a solenoid fuel valve. This solution is used on trucks that are equipped with a standard mechanical accelerator pedal.
- With the accelerometer pedal. This is a slightly different principle of adjustment, relevant to other types of trucks, where an electronic type accelerator pedal is used.
Extremely useful equipment, created to ensure safety while driving certain types of vehicles, which have mandatory requirements for the installation of EOS.
Based on the above, there is a legitimate question as to how the speed limiter works on cars and at the expense of what it performs its functions.
In fact, the device works according to a relatively simple algorithm. It looks as follows:
- The OOS includes a special control unit, which is connected to the regular car system for determining the current speed.
- The normal system continuously transmits special pulses to the electronic control unit of the limiter to control the current parameters.
- When the vehicle reaches a critical speed, the electronic control unit starts transmitting a signal to the solenoid valve.
- This valve is responsible for controlling the fuel supply to the combustion chambers.
- Due to these signals the operation of the solenoid valve changes, it passes less fuel.
- Such actions contribute to a decrease in the volume of the fuel supply and a drop in the speed of transport.
- When the electronic control unit detects that the speed has dropped below a critical mark, the transmission of signals to the solenoid valve stops. starts working in normal mode.
- As necessary, this cycle is repeated when the driver again crosses the limit of the allowed maximum speed.
Other actuators may also be used in the operation of the speed limiter. Quite often, the electronic powertrain control function is used. When the control unit receives a signal that the permissible speed has been exceeded, it switches the engine to idling mode. This keeps the power unit running at idle until the speed becomes normal again.
As for the critical speed parameters, they are determined individually. For each case and for the transport of goods in certain countries, their own limits are set. In most cases we are talking about values around 80-90 kilometers per hour.
The limiter undergoes a calibration procedure in order to set the critical speed setpoint. Each ATC can be calibrated for different values, i.e. they can be reconfigured to adapt to new operating conditions.
After all, in one situation, you can move at a speed of about 90 kilometers per hour, and in another critical value will already be 70 kilometers per hour. In order not to change the equipment itself which is installed and connected to the car each time, it is possible to calibrate the speed values at which the USOS will automatically start operating.
On which vehicles it is installed
The installation of speed limiters is regulated in the UNECE Regulations, as well as in the ADR Regulations. Certain categories of vehicles must be fitted with an ASC according to the regulations stipulated. This applies to vehicles with a maximum weight of more than 3,500 kilograms or 3.5 tonnes.
At the same time, all the limiters are adjusted to the parameters that do not allow vehicles to exceed the allowable speed above the mark of 90 kilometers per hour.
The requirement applies to all vehicles of categories N2 and N3. It does not matter when the vehicles were manufactured or under what conditions they are operated. All requirements are the same for urban, suburban and intercity vehicles.
The speed limit device is installed in the following cases:
- On passenger buses that are designed to transport children in organized groups aged 6-16 years. At the same factory design speed of such vehicles must exceed the mark of 60 kilometers per hour. Also a prerequisite for the installation of EOS on passenger buses is commissioning not earlier than September 2010.
- For vehicles that belong to categories AT, OX, FL, EX/II and EX/III. These are trucks designed for transportation of dangerous goods. All such vehicles are necessarily equipped with speed limiters. In this situation, it does not matter what their maximum weight is or what year these vehicles were produced.
- For other trucks, which carry dangerous goods without special permits. Including the method of packing, bulk or bulk. But here there are several conditions that must be met in order to be equipped with EOS. To begin with the weight of such vehicles must exceed 12 tons, and the first registration date not earlier than December 31, 1987. Or the maximum weight is more than 3.5 tons, then the first registration of the vehicle was made after December 31, 2007.
The USO has a universal design, which allows you to implement the device almost in any vehicle.
That is why the limiter is successfully used both on modern cars equipped with electronic system of the power unit control and on rather old cars where electronics is actually absent. These include cars equipped with carburetor power units.
EOS in the presence of FOS
Quite a lot of questions arise as to whether or not a vehicle must be equipped with a speed limiter, if the construction already includes the built-in function of speed limitation (SLC) from the factory.
According to the current regulations, all vehicles with a maximum weight over 3500 kilograms must be equipped with a separate SPL limiter. This applies even to those vehicles that are supplied by the manufacturer with an in-built ASF.
When transporting dangerous goods or passengers, the requirements of ADR and ECE require the installation of a speed monitor and speed limiter in order to obtain a permit. It is stipulated in ADR that the presence of an ASF does not constitute grounds for the absence of an ATC. That is, a separate limiter is required even in situations where there is an in-built speed limiting function for vehicles.
There is one more important point, which concerns installation of OOS. We are talking about the maximum speed according to the specifications prescribed in the vehicle’s passport. Even if this parameter does not exceed 90 kilometers per hour, it is still necessary to install a limiter. The explanation is quite simple. The current legislation and the ADR rules do not provide otherwise.
It is this fact that often provokes certain problems at the Road Traffic Safety Inspectorate when a carrier is faced with a need to issue ADR. Companies are refused a certificate because their vehicles are not equipped with an ATC speed limiter. And this is more than a legitimate action on the part of the employees of the Road Traffic Safety Inspectorate. That is why it is necessary to meet the conditions for getting an ADR, i.e. to provide the installation of a speed control system for their vehicles.
Otherwise, the company or trucking company will not be able to get a permit for the transportation of dangerous goods. This requirement must be observed by all who fall under the relevant categories of vehicles, the operation of which without the ESD is not allowed.
By signing the European agreement, each member state accepts the obligation to follow the rules for the international carriage of goods and passengers by road. If these are dangerous categories of goods or if passengers are being transported, ADR stipulates the use of a speed control device. This speed limiter reduces accidents and increases the overall level of safety on public roads.
The ADR regulations stipulate certain speed limits for vehicles used for the transport of dangerous goods and children.
When it comes to transporting dangerous goods, the speed limit is set at 90 kilometers per hour. However, the traffic police officer may issue a fine even in a situation where the speed is not exceeded, but the vehicle has no monitoring system.
As for the transportation of children, the requirements are more stringent. In the absence of the limiter is not a fine, and the prohibition of further operation of the vehicle. As for the speed limit, it is in this situation is 60 kilometers per hour.
The mere installation of a speed limiting device is not enough for the carrier. Appropriate structural changes must be documented.
In accordance with the Technical Regulations, the AS is subject to mandatory inclusion in the technical passport of the vehicle. If the control system has been provided since the factory, the manufacturer is obliged to make the corresponding marks.
If the owner of the vehicle himself carries out the installation, that is, makes certain changes in the design of the car, it is required to issue a special document.
Installation of the CB provides for mandatory sealing of the equipment, which is performed by the installer. It is not allowed to use restraints that are not certified and do not have the appropriate permits. Therefore, the list of companies involved in the manufacture and installation of the ATC in cars is strictly limited.
In order to obtain all the necessary certificates and documents and not to worry about the registration of changes in the design of vehicles, you need to apply to reputable companies that have the appropriate approvals for such work. After completing the installation, all the necessary supporting documents will be issued.
In addition to the documents, cars with EOS must also be provided with special stickers confirming the fact of the speed limiter installation. Such a label is supplemented by a sticker, which displays the maximum allowed speed.
The sticker is allowed to be placed on any part of the vehicle. Also the regulations do not provide a specific content of the sticker. But it must be present and visible to other road users. That is why it is often placed at the back of the vehicle on the left or right side. And sometimes there are several stickers at once. It is at the discretion of a car owner.
The cost of the OOS and installation
The installation of the device for speed limits on cars is provided not only for the purpose of compliance with the law, but also to increase safety when driving.
Mandatory installation and proper setup provides that the equipment requires a certain financial investment. But when it is installed, the payback period is no more than 3-4 months.
Savings are achieved by reducing fuel consumption as well as the risk of potential accidents. The presence of the EOS allows you to make your driving style more confident, measured and smooth.
As for the cost, a lot depends on the specific company that supplies and installs this additional equipment. The price is also influenced by the peculiarities of the vehicle. On this point, you can give some approximate values:
- If you just buy a set of equipment, on average, it will cost the buyer 13-15 thousand rubles. But it will still require installation, which you can hardly do with your own hands. This requires special equipment, certain skills and knowledge of the intricacies of installation. If you turn to outside companies, there is a risk of incorrect installation, as well as higher final costs. Practice shows that the best option is to buy together with the installation from one company.
- For cars equipped with an electronic gas pedal or accelerator pedal, the approximate cost of purchase and installation is 23-25 thousand rubles. This cost includes the full cycle of work, from testing the equipment to its connection and testing in action.
- Speed limiter kit and installation for vehicles equipped with diesel power units will cost about 26 to 27 thousand rubles.
- If the car is equipped with a mechanical accelerator pedal, the specialists usually charge about 27 thousand rubles for the device itself and its installation.
- The most expensive in terms of equipment are considered cars with a carburetor engine. This is due to the complexity of installation. Therefore, for such cars, the price with installation is about 55 thousand rubles.
But these are indicative prices, which may vary depending on who is engaged in the installation, and on such a vehicle a limiting device is mounted.
Speed limiters are important, useful and simply mandatory components of vehicles that transport children or dangerous goods. Their presence is regulated by law, and the lack of equipment on the car threatens fines and other additional penalties.