Power steering or ESC: which is better?
The old Moskvich or “Kopeika” type cars did not have any auxiliary devices to simplify the driver’s efforts to rotate the steering wheel.
Electric or power steering
Those days are a thing of the past, and now every car that comes off the line is equipped with power steering (electric (ESC) or hydraulic (HSS)).
It’s worth sorting out which is better: the power steering or the hydraulic power steering? Historical Facts
In the old days, the driver’s job was complicated. Turning a wheel required a lot of effort. If it was more or less possible in a car, in the case of trucks this problem was quite acute.
Russian designers first equipped the system of hydraulic power steering GAZ “Chaika” car. Subsequently this system was installed in all ordinary production cars “for the people”.
Later the electric equivalent of the power steering was invented. It was supposed to improve the capabilities of the vehicle and not have the disadvantages that were in the GUR. Currently, drivers’ opinions are divided. Some believe that the electric power steering has lived up to the engineers’ hopes and is better than the CPS. Others still believe that the hydraulic system is much better than the CPS. What is the matter in fact? What are the constructional peculiarities of CPS and CPS and how do they differ? Let us investigate. Power steering and its principle of operation
The power steering is a system that consists of low and high pressure pipes. Due to the installed pump, a special liquid circulates in them. In general, the algorithm of operation is as follows:
piston pump under high pressure feeds the liquid (oil) into the system. The pump is driven by the crankshaft belt; the oil feeds the distribution mechanism which is connected to a torsion built into the steering shaft. When the steering wheel is not turning, no oil is supplied to the hydraulic cylinder. But as the steering wheel begins to turn, the oil passages open and the fluid flows into the hydraulic cylinder. It is important to note that it is the distributor that is considered the most vulnerable part of the steering control, as it is quite sensitive to oil quality; the following happens in the hydraulic cylinder cavity: the incoming oil drives the rod and piston, which, in turn, transmit it to the front wheels. The result is that the oil transmits energy from the piston pump to the hydraulic cylinder; the whole system is short-circuited by means of connecting hoses. This ensures that the oil is constantly circulating through the high and low pressure hoses. One moves to the hydraulic cylinder and the other moves back to the oil tank.
The hydraulic system is quite complex and capricious. It’s important to make sure it’s completely tight, has a good filter and the right amount of oil.
Power steering diagram
The driver must always monitor the tension of the pump drive belt, the level of fluid inside the system and timely change of filter and oil. Electric power steering and how it works
The electric power steering is a system, the operation of which involves: an electric motor, torque sensor and control unit. The system itself is quite compact and powerful in comparison with the CPS. In addition, the ESC analyzes the speed at which the car is moving and its engine speed. Due to this, the power of the electric motor at low speeds is the maximum, and at high speeds, on the contrary, the minimum. The operation algorithm is as follows:
a sensor when turning the steering wheel registers data on the rotation of the torsion shaft; the control unit, after receiving and processing information about engine speed and vehicle speed, starts the electric motor; the electric motor facilitates the rotation of the steering wheel to the required side as much as possible.
Electric power steering scheme
It is worth noting that many cars provide for disconnecting the EPS unit from the speed sensor. There is a special button for this purpose. This fact allows the amplifier to work as efficiently as possible. Advantages and disadvantages of the power steering
The following advantages of the power steering can be distinguished:
it provides comfortable operation of the driver at any driving speeds; the system withstands any loads, is powerful enough to work effectively on trucks and SUVs; the production of hydraulic mechanisms is cheaper than the manufacture of ESC, and therefore vehicles equipped with ESC are much cheaper.
Power steering kit
Among the disadvantages of the hydraulic system is the cumbersomeness of the system, its careful operation, timely diagnostics and preventive measures, as well as its dependence on the engine, which leads to a certain waste of its power. In addition, the system is not immediately responsive to the driver. Advantages and disadvantages of the electric booster
It is worth noting the following advantages of the electric booster:
availability of several modes of application; economy; compactness; the performance of the system is not affected by either debilitating heat or severe frost; easy maintenance; quick response to the actions of the driver.
The disadvantage of this mechanism can be considered as a bad work and an unexpected failure when driving on bad roads. Electric power steering can overheat and not work until it cools down.
Electric power steering kit
The power of this type of power steering is not enough to install it on trucks and SUVs. Failure of the device threatens to result in expensive repairs or a complete replacement of the mechanism. Comparative analysis of CPS and CPS
Of course, each driver has his own preferences in both the brand of car and the type of steering. When comparing the two systems, the GUR is a simpler device that does not depend on electronic controls. It has no program failures and does not overheat on a rutted road.
However, such a system requires the purchase of consumables and their periodic replacement: oil, filter, hoses and gaskets. This is due to the fact that numerous connections and seals are subjected to high loads, due to which they wear out. It is important to diagnose the condition of the power steering system and perform preventive measures to maintain its performance. Electric power steering system design Electric power steering system design
Electric amplifiers do not need consumables and have no compounds that can disable the system. This makes such devices more advanced and reliable.
If we talk about ease of operation, the hydraulics provide better feedback and feel the limits of the vehicle on tight curves. CPS does not react to shocks and vibrations on a bad road.
ESC, on the other hand, requires a special damper capable of damping the vibrations. Vibrations and shocks make the electric system vulnerable and can shorten its service life.
In terms of reliability and efficiency, the hydraulic system is not able to withstand prolonged operation in extreme conditions. The steering wheel should not be in the end position for more than 10-15 seconds. Otherwise the unit will overheat and shut down. It will take time to restart it. Also using hydraulics means a certain loss of engine power.
Driving on a bad road
The ESCs create only additional load on the generator, and do not take away the power from the engine, and do not waste additional fuel. The system reacts absolutely calmly to a prolonged work at the extreme position of a steering wheel. The electric motor is switched off only when driving off-road, on sticky snow and bumps.
The advantage of ESCs is the availability of several operating modes:
The settings are quite easy to change on the go. To do this, just press a special button and select the desired mode.
If we talk about the use of power steering, the CPS can be installed on almost any car. But CPS has a limited torque and can not be installed on trucks, SUVs and large executive limousines. Jeep Wrangler Recon It’s not recommended to install CPS on SUVs
To summarize, it should be noted that the CPS was created in order to eliminate the disadvantages of the CPS, although this system is not unequivocally better and more effective. It also has some disadvantages, the main of which is the impossibility of using it on off-road cars and trucks. Source carextra.ru/sovety/chto-l…lektrousilitel-rulya.html
Electric power or hydraulic, which is better – let’s compare the two types of power amplifier and choose the best one
Before we deal with what is better with CPS or EPS, I suggest “running through” the main advantages and disadvantages of both systems. Then we will compare and choose the best of them. I would like to note right away, that you need to install your own booster on a certain type of car, no matter how good it is. It does not depend on the whims of car manufacturers, but on the peculiarities of the car. This, too, should be taken into account in the comparison of the two power steering.
- Cheapness of operation, repair and maintenance. Many car service centers know and know how to fix them. Low cost of replacing individual components.
- Has a large capacity. That is, it is installed on large cars, where you need to spend more effort, which will not be enough for the electric motor of the electric booster.
- The low production price of the system directly affects the retail value of the car.
Reliability. In any system, the more components or nodes, the greater the probability of their failure. It is impossible to call the hydraulic booster the best in this regard. You constantly need to monitor the fluid level, the integrity of the hoses and tubes, which work under pressure. The power steering pump is also not a strong element in this chain, in addition to damage to its moving parts, there are several valves inside the body, which are responsible for the performance of the entire system.
Economy. If you disassemble the principle of operation of the power steering, it “steals” up to 10% of the car’s engine power. The pump is rigidly connected with the motor with a belt, so part of the energy of the crankshaft rotation is transferred not to the wheels, but to its pulley.
Operating Limitations. It is not recommended to hold the steering wheel in extreme positions for an extended period of time. It will lead to a critical increase in pressure in the system and its failure.
In cars of low price category, in order to cheapen the machine, some elements responsible for the implementation of certain functions are removed from the system. For example, disabling the power steering at high speeds or engine speeds. This leads to the loss of communication between the driver and the wheels when the speed of the car increases. This negatively affects the safety of driving.
Electric power steering
- Reliability. The design and principle of operation of the electric power steering system saves the system from additional elements and nodes.
- Ease of operation. There is no need to monitor the fluid level or its leakage through the hoses. The amplifier’s electric motor, its sensors and control unit do not require constant maintenance. Only in case of a breakdown they will need attention.
- Economy. The electric motor works only when you turn the steering wheel, which means that it does not constantly load the generator and the engine of the machine. In addition, there is no hard connection between it and the engine, there is no loss of power and increased fuel consumption.
- You can keep the steering wheel turned all the way to the end as much as you want. This will not cause a breakdown of the power booster.
More expensive to repair. In most cases, the electric power steering motor is not repairable; it needs to be replaced. This is true for the gears and sensors. Their prices are higher than the hydraulic counterpart.
Low power. It is not installed on trucks due to low performance. Its presence is the fate of passenger cars with a small curb weight.
Price. Electric power steering kit is more expensive than the production of hydraulic power steering. Therefore, the cost of the car will be higher.
Which one is better to choose for a simple driver
If you are looking into buying a passenger car, it is recommended to choose the electric power steering. It is more reliable and does not require constant attention. Most drivers only think of it when it breaks down, and it breaks down less often than the power booster.
The electric booster saves fuel and improves safety when the car is moving at high speed. Modern systems can directly participate in the driving of the car, helping the driver to avoid accidents. For example, lane keeping, automatic parking, and steering in a critical situation.
If the electric power steering fails, a person will be able to twist the steering wheel unimpeded. In the case of the power steering, the pressure in the system will prevent this. It is necessary to disconnect the pump from the motor and remove the fluid from the booster to facilitate the rotation of the steering wheel.
On the other hand, it is not expedient to install electric booster on heavy cars, as it will not cope with its task. Therefore, it is better to choose the electric booster for passenger cars, let it be more expensive, but it has more advantages. For SUVs or trucks – power booster.