What is the difference between lithol and solidol?
Since the heyday of Soviet industry, there have been two most common lubricants – lithol and solidol. Both substances are made on the basis of petroleum oils, but have a number of differences in composition and operational capabilities (operating temperature, humidity of the working area). Speaking about the differences of lithol and solidol, it is necessary to remember that there are several modifications of these lubricants. Classification of lithols
Lithol is a lubricant resistant to water, which is based on petroleum oils. The oil is thickened with lithium stearic acid soap. This thickener gives lithol a high temperature threshold of use and viscosity. It has a color from light beige to chocolate. The lithol product line includes four main branches of the material. Among them:
CYATIM-201 CYATIM-202 CYATIM-203 Lithol-24
CYATIM-201 and CYATIM-202 are designed for application in assemblies with moderate loading, where there is no increased material shift of the protected equipment. These CYATIMs are used in electrical engineering, radio engineering and other high precision devices. These grades have the highest frost resistance. The temperature limits of application of these types of lithols are wide and fluctuate from -50 °С to +100 °С. CYATIM-201 and CYATIM-202, due to the similarity of their properties, can be substituted for each other.
CYATIM-203 unlike the previous two lithium soaps is made from transformer oil, which is also thickened with lithium soap. A number of additives are added to this lithium grease to give it additional properties. Thanks to the additives the field of application expands in heavy equipment power units, gear transmissions, loaded bearings and gears. It differs sharply from the two previous brands by its water-repellent properties, excelling CYATIM-201 and CYATIM-202. Protection against wear of mechanism parts is also improved.
Lithol-24 accommodates all the properties of CYATIM. In addition, it has additives that prevent oxidation of parts. The temperature of use up to 130 ° C allows to protect nodes with intensive friction in all kinds of bearings. Lithol oil base practically does not evaporate (not more than 5% at the maximum operating temperature) – it adds durability of the node, in which the lubricant was introduced. Classification of Solidols
Solidol as lithols are based on petroleum oils, but the thickener in this material is calcium soaps on the basis of higher acids. The temperature of solidol functional suitability is limited to -30 °С … +75 °С. Depending on the acids used for thickening, there are two types of solidols:
Fat solidols Solidols synthetic solidols.
Fat solidols use fatty acids of natural origin. Synthetic solidols have synthetic acids in their composition. They are cheaper than their fatty counterparts and are of comparable quality. Two main brands of synthetic solidols US-1 and US-2 are produced. It is allowed to mix different types of solidols during operation, which will not violate the properties of the overall mixture.
The advantage of solidol is that in the process of operation it does not wash out from the places of laying. Due to the highest grease content and low operating temperature, solidol is used in units and mechanisms operating in humid conditions in unheated areas (slow-speed gearboxes, agricultural machinery). Negative properties of this lubricant include low mechanical stability and viscosity inversely proportional to temperature and the strength limit of less than 600 Pa. Comparison of solidol and lithol
From the above characteristics of both lubricants, a comparative characteristic can be made. Both materials were created in the 70’s back in the last century, and therefore obsolete and do not meet the requirements of modern engineering one hundred percent, especially with solidol. The careful car owners and mechanics, who do not spare money on the car maintenance, choose modern analogues with improved characteristics.
If it is a question of choosing between solidol and lithol, you should prefer lithol-24 or CYATIM-203, especially in critical and hard-to-reach units.
For the lubrication of torsional parts it is also better to choose lithol greases. Thanks to the density, vibration is reduced, and, accordingly, the noise at work. But it should be understood that we are not talking about the coolers of PC system units and fans of hoods, but about heavy machines, industrial units and cars. After all, small parts (speedometer hands, the mechanism of the door lock), once in subzero temperatures, will be seized with lithol as plasticine and will definitely not be able to perform their functions.
High humidity is also not a direct indication for the use of solidol. It is necessary to take into account all the characteristics of the working environment. After all, when the temperature rises above 750C, the solidol transforms into a liquid fraction and flows out. But solidol is preferable in a readily separable environment. In such conditions, lithol is able to spoil rubber parts by making them swell, PVC is corroded to holes, low-quality plastic leaves traces.
Let’s compare prices for both variants of lubricants. On average the price of a kilo of solidol varies around 100 rubles. Whereas one kilogram of lithol will cost twice as much – about 200 rubles per kilogram. Prices are taken on the basis of retail purchase through online stores.
According to the cost, we can see that on the one hand solidol is twice cheaper, but in – first solidol will not be able to perform the functions of lithol, even if it is free, and secondly, the greedy pays twice and the purchase of a new part will cost many times more. So you should keep strict list of what grease can be used and you should neither overpay nor repent of your own hindsight.
In conclusion, we would like to summarize all the points on which oil greases are differentiated solidol and lithol:
Different working temperature . -30 ° C … +75 ° C for solidol versus -60 ° C … +130 ° C for lithol (minimum and maximum operating temperatures of all grades of both materials are shown) Viscosity of the lubricant . Lithol becomes highly viscous when the temperature drops below 50°C, which is both a positive and negative side of grease. Washout of the working assembly . Lolidol is less likely to be washed out of a working part as it is greasier than lithol. Aggressiveness of the material. Lithol due to the presence of many additives is aggressive to many materials (plastic, PVC, rubber). Lidol is not corrosive and does not damage products made of the above materials. It is corrosion-resistant. Thanks to the same additives, lithol protects metal (except aluminum) parts from corrosion and oxidation by air and water oxygen. At this time, lithol cannot boast of such a property. Lithol’s aggressiveness to aluminum, especially in the presence of water, makes it impossible to use it with this metal. The cost of buying grease . Lolidol is twice, and in bulk supply is three times the price of the opponent. Shelf life . When stored in containers from the manufacturer, the grease remains in usable condition for many years. Many people find themselves with cans from the seventies with solidol and lithol in good condition. And while they will no longer protect key car assemblies, they will lubricate the dachshund gate in good faith. Availability . Both solidol and lithol can be found in any hardware stores, online resources and specialized markets.
What is the difference between lithol and solidol and what is better to choose
Lithol and solidol – how they differ, the properties, characteristics and application of these greases.
- Solidol and lithol are lubricating compositions that are used to protect individual units from substantial load, overheating and to reduce friction.
- Solidol and lithol have similar compositions, but differ in technical characteristics.
- With the exception of leachability, lithol is a more effective option. Lubricants also differ in cost. Solidol is twice as cheap as lithol.
Solidol – description, characteristics and applicability.
Solidol is one of the first greases developed in the 20s of XX century for service of automobile and agricultural machinery units.
Solidol (from Latin solidus – dense and oleum – oil), obsolete designations “tavot”, “madia”, “butter ointment”, is a grease produced by thickening industrial oils of medium viscosity with calcium soaps of higher fatty acids.
Operating temperature of “Solidol” grease is in the range up to 65…70 °C. Compared to lithium greases, solidol is more difficult to wash out with water.
Solidol is used in mechanisms working in damp conditions (agricultural machinery, etc.) but not experiencing heating as well as a preservative grease.
Solidol composition is a homogeneous composition of light yellow to dark brown color, which is obtained by thickening the industrial oils with calcium soaps. The upper threshold of working temperatures is about +70 °C.
Solidols are used not only for lubrication of machines and mechanisms, but also for medicinal purposes. In horticulture, there is a positive practice of using solidol “in its pure form” instead of garden varnish for grafting and pruning of trees.
There are two main varieties of solidol:
Fat solidols, where fatty acids of plant origin are used as a thickener,
Synthetic solidols, where the thickener is obtained by chemical synthesis.
Solidols are divided into two main groups:
- Fat solidols where hydrated calcium soaps obtained by saponification with caustic lime of fatty acids and their glycerides contained in vegetable oils are used to thicken the base oil.
- Synthetic solidols, where hydrated calcium soaps of synthetic fatty acids obtained by catalytic oxidation of high-molecular weight hydrocarbons (paraffins, etc.) with air oxygen are used to thicken the base oil.
Synthetic solidol – production technology.
Synthetic solidol is produced on the basis of base oils after acid-contact and selective purification, where the share of the latter in the mixture according to standards does not exceed 30%.
Residues from distillation of synthetic fatty acids (9-12%) saponified with lime are used as raw materials for thickener preparation.
Fat solidol is thickened with calcium soaps of fatty acids contained in natural fats (usually cotton oil).
To prepare synthetic solidol a suspension of lime milk in a small quantity of prepared solidol is prepared in the digester at a temperature of about 100 °С.
Then the temperature of the mass is reduced to 65 ° C and the mixture sedimentation is made, the water emerged at that, descends, and instead of it a small amount (about 15% of normal) of mineral oil and all the necessary amount of fatty acids are loaded into the boiler.
The next step in the preparation of synthetic solidol is saponification of acids and partial dehydration of the resulting soap by heating the mixture to 105 ° C for 2 … 6 hours. The remaining oil is added to the mixture, which lowers its temperature to 70 … 75 °С. After stirring and cooling ready solidol is poured into containers. At modern equipped enterprises solidol cooking was carried out under pressure in hermetically closed autoclaves with mechanical mixing devices that accelerated the process of grease preparation and increased productivity, and cooling drums were used for its cooling.
Both varieties of solidol were prepared from mineral (petroleum) oil, the names reflecting the method of obtaining the soap thickener used.
Fat solidols were considered of higher quality, in particular – were less prone to hardening during storage and to thixotropic hardening when “resting” after being pumped into the assembly under pressure. Externally, fat solidols are indistinguishable and mix without adverse effects.
A distinction is made by consistency between conventional and press-solidolids.
Press-solidolids are used for greasing mechanisms through grease nipples (spritzation), they are softer in consistency, but have lower upper temperature threshold and degrade already at 80 ° C (flows, lose their lubricating properties starting with 45 … 50 ° C).
Solidols include graphite grease USSA that has a silver shade. It contains up to 10% of ground graphite-P (coarse grinding) that gives the USSA graphite grease enhanced extreme pressure and conductive properties.
Solidols have been used everywhere for many years. Due to their low cost, versatility, and good moisture resistance, they are still in use even today.
Solidol grease turned out to be so popular that not only mechanics, but also ordinary motorists began to call any grease for automotive and industrial applications solidol.
The main disadvantage of solidol is a very low threshold of upper operating temperatures. Already at +80 °C the grease is destroyed and ceases to perform its protective functions.
Lithol – description, characteristics and applicability.
Lithol grease was developed in the Soviet Union in the 70-80s of XX century as a material that eventually is going to completely replace solidol.
Lithol is based on mineral oil thickened with lithium soaps of stearic acids. This thickener allowed to expand the range of operating temperatures – the grease works perfectly up to +120. +130 °C.
The most well-known and versatile material of the series is Lithol-24. Additives contained in this composition prevent the process of accelerated oxidation of the grease. The consistency, carrying capacity, water-repellent properties and many other characteristics of the material proved to be sufficient for the possibility of its application in most nodes of modern mechanisms.
At present Lithol is, perhaps, the most universal and multifunctional grease for mechanisms operating under normal operating conditions.
Comparison of solidol and lithol.
So, since the Soviet times in Russia, lithol and solidol remain the most popular greases. What is the difference between these materials?
To understand the greases, which is better – lithol or solidol – can be understood if you know their composition and the properties that give greases their components.
The main features and differences of the materials are due to the different type of thickener used.
The increased thermal resistance of the composition is the merit of the lithium soap used instead of calcium soap in solidol. The lithium soap also has better corrosion protection.
But, if you compare the two formulations, calcium solidol resists water washout better. It is also characterized by lower chemical activity and can be used with those construction materials (such as aluminum and other non-ferrous metals), for which lithium greases are detrimental.
The parameter of ductility is not to be neglected. If you squeeze lithium grease in one hand and solidol in the other, the first material will smear, while the second will be well pressed between the fingers.
Unlike solidol, lithol does not contain components that are aggressive to most rubbers. That is why these materials are often used in nodes that are in contact with rubber cuffs, glands, seals.
Thus, despite the clear advantages of lithol in some parameters, the difference in operational properties has not allowed lithols to completely displace solidols. Each of those materials is still in use and each has its own sphere of application.
Note that pure calcium greases are rarely used now. They have been replaced by materials based on complex calcium soaps. The new compositions have no disadvantages inherent to lithols and are characterized by very high working properties.
What’s better for greasing – lithol or solidol?
- Solidol is often used to lubricate joints and other friction units of outdated machinery, which do not experience heavy loads and operate at low speeds.
- Lithol can withstand harsher conditions, so it is actively used in nodes of modern machinery.
At the same time, restrictions concerning this or that grease impose certain limits on its use in certain areas.
For example, lithol is not recommended for use on aluminum surfaces, so if there is an alternative – to use solidol or lithium grease there – it is better to choose the first option.
Solidol is indispensable wherever good protection against environmental influences – moisture, dust, dirt, sun, wind – is required. That is why it is used as a preservative grease as well as for agricultural mechanisms and road machinery.
In modern automotive equipment application of solidol is undesirable and impractical, and sometimes inadmissible. The use of solidol is suitable for use in older machinery with large lubrication gaps and lower loads on the units and parts. Lithol is perfectly suitable as a lubricant for preservation, where solidol proves to be irreplaceable.